Literature reviews - Example 1 - Student Services - The University of Queensland, Australia


example of literature review for thesis

The literature review for thesis work can be interesting and even fun if you have the worries of the unknown out of the way. The thesis literature review example can give you the peace of mind needed as you review it to help trigger which personal methods you will use to go about your own literature review writing endeavors.5/5. Sample Literature Review This is a literature review I wrote for Psychology / Research Methods I. It received an A. The assignment was to read a variety of assigned articles related to the topic of food and mood, as well as several articles on the topic that we found on our own. Sep 12,  · It may not be called a Literature Review but gives you an idea of how one is created in miniature. e.g Barnett, J., Bull, S. & Cooper, H. () Pop-up library at the University of Birmingham: extending the reach of an academic library by taking "the library" to the students. New Review of Academic Michael Doheny.

Thesis Literature Review Tips | Thesis Literature Review Example

Are you looking for a good literature review sample? We are example of literature review for thesis to share it with you. Our professional graduation thesis writers can easily create a paper on any topic, so be sure that they will cope with your literature review and graduate thesis.

We are showing only a sample of literature review introduction to give you a good idea of how a literature review sample should look like. If you are searching for more help, please read the literature review example below and submit your request for a free graduate thesis outline written personally for you. Patient satisfaction is one of the most significant qualities of quality in care.

This review identifies the evidence regarding the fasting guidelines for adults being monitored for anesthesia, fasting periods and ensuring compliance to the guidelines among other factors revolving around fasting among patients undergoing anesthesia. Rural areas lack of protocols what are EBP. They are not complaint with ASA guidelines. Older adults are more vulnerable due to physiological example of literature review for thesis, as well as inability to compensate when adverse events occur.

This is why McDonald argues that there is a necessity to ensure that old people undergoing monitored care anesthesia in rural area settings are supposed to follow the necessary fasting guidelines to ensure eliminate any form of complications.

Consumption of Clear Liquids Prior to Anesthesia. An increased body of literature shows that the oral intake of clear fluids for close to 2 hours prior to an elective operation prevents the prevailing risks. They opine that shortened preoperative fasting is not only safe, but decreases in insulin resistance as well as the acute phase response following a trauma. Furthermore, the study indicates that the uptake of CHO-rich beverages possess the potential to curtail the post-operative discomfort and decrease the duration of the post operative stay.

However, further studies are necessary for the confirmation of these claims. Similar effect of carbohydrates on insulin were got from another study by Bilku, et al, that was characterized by 17 randomized controlled trials and a total of 1, example of literature review for thesis, patients.

They were example of literature review for thesis to significantly enhance the resistance of insulin and improve the patient safety. However, this study did not make any definite conclusion on the preservation of the muscle mass. CHO has also been found to have the potential to reduce preoperative discomfort and enhances satisfaction for the patients undergoing the anesthesia care. Preoperative administration of clear fluids orally has recently been identified as one of the most efficient ways of improving the postoperative outcomes.

According to the findings of the study by Nakamura, et al. Preoperative complications and the health of the adult patients characterized by the various conditions such as nausea, thirst and hunger were analyzed for a certain paper involving 38 randomized studies.

The fluids that were evaluated in the study include fruit juice, coffee, water as well as the other clear fluids characterized by carbohydrates or isotonic drinks. Participants that were given water exhibited lower volume of gastric contents compared to the ones with the normal fasting regimen. Studies that focused on children found out that eating and drinking without limitation can be allowed up to 2 hours prior to surgery Power, et al, example of literature review for thesis.

An increase in the pH was also observed when the participants were exposed to preoperative fasting. One explanation for the increase in the pH of the gastric compartments related to the fact that anxiety related to the anticipation of food among children leads to an increase in the release of hydrochloric acid same case like that of the cephalic phase of the gastric secretion.

The study further found out that the cases of aspiration and regurgitation were minimal in the conditions of these studies. Therefore, as per the results of this study, children that are allowed to ingest liquids were less hungry and thirsty and also felt more comfortable and better behaved compared to the ones that were exposed placed under fasting conditions.

Aspiration related to anesthesia was not identified among the randomized and prospective studies conducted among participants that ate high carbohydrate drink. In their study characterized by a sample of patients undergoing anesthesia and provided with a solution of ml of Fasting Practices. Fasting prior to anesthesia is important in avoiding the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The suggestions to fast before an operation is associated with the assumption that food which is consumed just before an operation remains in the gastric system, thus increasing the risk related to aspiration.

Additionally, there is also an assumption that abstaining from food before a surgery is likely to reduce the chances of aspiration. This is through the reduction of preoperative discomfort such as thirst, fatigue and hunger as well as early postoperative complications related to pain and vomiting. The study further identified that the level of these discomforts were found to be significantly higher in the fasting and glucose groups as compared to CHD groups.

Thus, CHH treatment can be applied in enhancing comfort for patients that are about to undergo thyroidectomy. The study showed good results from the new behaviors and suggested that they should be encouraged to reduce the recovery time of the patients undergoing surgery. In more detailed analysis of the manner in which Example of literature review for thesis supplementation plays a protective role in surgical processes, Gjessing, example of literature review for thesis, et al argue that CHO supplementation in the preoperative phase reduces the trauma resulting from surgery.

The intake of CHO acts to enhance the protective role of preoperative CHO supplementation on the development of insulin resistance after surgery. Although various studies have discovered that the carbohydrate-rich fluids are beneficial in improving the postoperative recovery, the effectiveness of the fluids in reducing the length of hospital is uncertain.

In a study that focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of preoperative loading with the carbohydrates on postoperative outcomes, Webster, et al, found a positive association between the use of preoperative high carbohydrate fluids and recovery.

However, the study was unable to confirm or refute the benefits CHO for a shorter period of hospital stay following a surgery. However, example of literature review for thesis, not all studies have found the administration of carbohydrates effective in the improving the conditions of an operation procedure.

Aspiration was also absent in both scenarios. However, example of literature review for thesis, fasting has been identified to be ineffective in preventing the complications associated with medical surgery. For instance, an observational study by Hamid, et al. Pre-procedural fasting has also been found ineffective in improving comfort and satisfaction.

The results of the study confirm the necessity of following safer and flexible fasting policies before an operation, including the ones guiding the intake of oral fluids. Also, the results of this study indicate that taking of clear fluids preoperatively in a parturient is safe, and in the cases requiring urgent cesarean, the risks of regurgitation and aspiration are not likely to increase.

Samantaray suggest that the pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents causes aspiration pneumonia that is life threatening. Patients booked for elective surgery are always advised to refrain from eating or drinking after midnight of the previous day from when their surgery is scheduled. According to Maltby fasting before elective surgery prevents the incidences of regurgitation of the stomach contents.

This is the reason why preoperative fasting was initially recommended for the reduction of the postoperative nausea and vomiting Maltby, Obese patients without comorbid conditions are also advised to follow similar fasting guidelines as the non-obese patients and be allowed access to clear drinks two hours prior to the elective surgery.

Fortunately, the current death cases related to pulmonary aspiration during surgery are low. Samantaray attribute the low occurrences of aspiration during example of literature review for thesis to the increased awareness on pulmonary aspiration and improvement in anesthetic techniques rather than the use of the traditional fasting guidelines.

However, example of literature review for thesis implementation of the guidelines has been example of literature review for thesis difficult making the aspect remain suboptimal.

Additionally, the implementation of the guidelines is subject to other studies that found out that that the fasting guidelines can have the contrary results tom the ones proposed by the various studies. As per the results of this study, pulmonary aspiration should not be a course worry much about during anesthesia. The decreased incidents of pulmonary aspiration, however, indicates that use of only study patients could be leading to inaccurate results. These studies always find it difficult because these problems are rare among children.

Gender differences. Studies have also identified the gender differences in the fasting practices for patients about to undergo anesthesia. The difference was noted to be less pronounced with the increase in age. These results were obtained from an examination of the residual gastric contents of fasted patients that were under medication for gastrointestinal endoscopy, the study found out that the males presented for endoscopy.

However, this study could not confirm or exclude the involvement of the various factors related to old age. The differences in the fasting results across gender were also found to be existent among children. The study concluded that fasting for one hour does not alter the pH significantly as compared to fasting for two hours. Fasting Duration. Preoperative fasting practices normally prolong than the example of literature review for thesis practice procedures while the medical procedures are not always given to the patients before they are ushered into surgery.

The fasting guidelines for people having elective surgery published by ASA in relied on the analysis of more than studies, expert inputs and sophisticated statistical techniques.

Some of the guidelines include ensuring a minimum fast two hours from clear liquids, eight hours from heavy foods, six hours from a light meal or infant formula and fours from breast milk, example of literature review for thesis.

However, these guidelines had been already suggested earlier. In a study that involved random assigning of low-risk patients undertaking the morning surgery in 6 university affiliated hospitals to an oral rehydration solution ORS group or the fasting one, it was found out that the Oral rehydration therapy up to 2hours prior to the surgery is safe among the low-risk Japanese surgical population Itou et al.

According to this study, physicians have an obligation of using the practice for maintaining the amount of body water and electrolytes and ensuring the comfort of the patient. Fasting Guidelines and Recommendations.

One of the most common forms of the failure to adhere to the set fasting guidelines occurs in the form of fasting beyond the set periods. Fasting beyond the set requirements was also observed by Roberts in a clinical audit on preoperative fasting. According to them, most patients are needlessly fasting for a prolonged period of time from both food and water which might example of literature review for thesis their healing process.

However, the article failed to give a clear reasoning on why since mo research was carried out. Prolonged pre-operative fasting is termed as an unpleasant experience that possesses the capacity to cause serious medical complications. Inappropriate pre-operative fasting was also revealed by Hamid in his audit on Moorfields South PAU whereby the fasting instructions was not concordant with the national guidelines leading to serious negative impacts on patients.

Patients were found to be fast in an inappropriate manner and over prolonged period of time, leading to discomfort as well as the subjective and objective dehydration. The failure to implement these guidelines is also associated with ignorance on the side of anesthetists. They indicate that the national published guidelines are essential for the promotion of shorter durations which are more effective than the previous ones. Indeed, several randomized trials have failed to show any link between non-fasted patients and pulmonary aspiration.

Therefore, there is no reason to recommend fasting patients prior to procedural sedation in the ED. This is because their health conditions are characterized by a range of health conditions that may complicate the application of the fasting guidelines.

According to Wei, et al. In matters compliance, example of literature review for thesis, studies have found out that compliance does not necessarily mean that the patient understands the advantages of the guidelines.

A total of patients were put under survey through being asked to answer an point questionnaire on the demographics, fasting before surgery and the attitudes related to fasting.

Although this may led to unintentional compliance, there is a need of the health care givers to inform patients on the necessity of the practice to ensure that they intentionally and knowledgeably comply.

In this regard, it is important for the nurses to understand the scientific aspects that guide fasting practices and what they are supposed to teach patients. Hamid argues that there is a need to educate the health professionals on the changes related to the guideline practices and the new findings from the various scientific studies on the topic. Utilization of the evidence- and patient-based approach to pre-operative fasting is essential in the improvement of patient satisfaction.

According to Hamid correct fasting intervals are essential for curtailing the inconveniences related to delay in surgery, reducing the medical complications and improving the post operative wellbeing.


Literature Review Examples With Writing Tips


example of literature review for thesis


A literature review may not contain a traditional thesis statement. However, you have to inform your readers what to expect. Attempt to write a simple statement that informs the reader what your central organizing principle is. Here is an example of literature review excerpt to illustrate. We are showing only a sample of literature review introduction to give you a good idea of how a literature review sample should look like. If you are searching for more help, please read the literature review example below and submit your request for a free graduate thesis outline written personally for you. Sample Literature Review This is a literature review I wrote for Psychology / Research Methods I. It received an A. The assignment was to read a variety of assigned articles related to the topic of food and mood, as well as several articles on the topic that we found on our own.